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Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than in women, and it commonly makes its appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy.
Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior; even though asleep. They may, for example, continue walking, or driving, or stirring a pot until the activity is interrupted by external forces. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to droop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.
During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations, known as hypnagogic phenomena, consist of realistic perceptions of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep. Narcoleptics may also suffer from night wakening during sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
- which of the following would be most appropriate title for the passage?
- a good night’s sleep
- a cure for narcolepsy
- An unusual sleep disturbance
- hallucinations during sleep
2. The word “malfunctioning” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
- improperly working
- regularly waking
- incorrectly classifying
- harshly interpreting
3. At which of the following ages would a person be most likely to develop narcolepsy?
4. Approximately how many narcoleptics are there in the United States?
- Fewer than 500,000
- More than 500,000
- Fewer than 1.5 million
- More than 1.5 million
5. The word “bout” in line 2 is closet in meaning to
6. Which of the following involves a complete collapse?
- automatic behavior
- REM sleep
7. When would hypnagogic phenomena most likely occur?
- just after going to bed
- in the middle of the night
- soon after waking
- after getting up
8. Which is the following would be most likely to occur during daily activities?
- automatic behavior
- night wakening
- sleep paralysis
9. Where in the passage does the author describe what seems to precipitate a sudden loss of muscle tone?
- lines 12-14
- lines 14-15
- lines 16-17
- lines 20-22
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