Arsenio’s ESL Podcast: Season 3 – Episode 68 – Grammar – Third Conditional

My favorite conditional of them all is finally here! Let’s break this down and give you exercises.


If + past perfect….would/wouldn’t have + past participle.

If I had seen him, I‘d have spoken to him.

We wouldn’t have passed our exams if we hadn’t studied.

If can go at the start of the sentence or in the middle. If it goes at the start, we must use a comma before the second half of the sentence.


We use the third conditional to talk about imaginary or impossible situations in the past and their consequences. The situations are impossible because we cannot change them now that they have happened.

If I had done my homework last night (imaginary past situation — it didn’t happen), the teacher wouldn’t have been angry with me. (the consequence)

  1. If the Roman Empire had never end/ended, Latin would has/have remained the universal language.
  2. If aliens land/had landed on the Earth, somebody would had/have some evidence to prove it by now.
  3. Perhaps dinosaurs would survive/have survived if an asteroid didn’t/hadn’t hit the Earth.

Write sentences in third conditional.

  1. I got first place in the race because I trained a lot.
  2. The road wasn’t wet today because it didn’t rain.
  3. I didn’t buy any food because I didn’t have any money.
  4. We didn’t know they were such horrible people when we became their friends.
  5. My brother and I don’t speak anymore because he’s jealous.

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